copyright 1996, Tracy-Williams Consulting
Balancing Engineering, Education, Law Enforcement, and Encouragement
in Local Bicycle Programs
By John Williams & Kathleen McLaughlin, Adventure Cycling Association
(published February 1993 as Case Study 11 of the National Bicycling and
Walking Study; FHWA)
Table of Contents
- Introduction: Mixing the 4-E's in bicycle programs
- Step 1: Understand the bicycling situation
- Step 2: Set achievable goals and objectives
- Step 3: Develop an action plan
- Step 4: Evaluate the work
- Conclusion and references
When bicycle programs began in the late 1960s, the emphasis was strictly
on providing facilities. As communities gained experience and began to identify
other needs, the concept of the comprehensive "4-e" program emerged,
combining the elements of engineering, education, enforcement, and encouragement.
The past 20 years have seen a great deal of growth and much creativity in
the field. Some communities have excelled in education while others have
implemented strong enforcement programs. Encouragement programs have thrived
and engineering work has matured.
Today, with the Federal mandate for action contained in the Intermodal Surface
Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, there is a growing interest in bicycle
transportation. Yet, few communities have the informational underpinnings
for a successful program.
This report suggests a four-step process through which a community can implement
a comprehensive "4-e" program to encourage bicycle transportation.
It includes suggestions for collecting basic data, setting program objectives,
building an action plan, and evaluating results.
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